- Crop Rotation:
- the plants that are highly recommended to grow before wheat cultivation are pulses and rapeseed; rapeseed is as efficient as pulses when used as a pre-culture on wheat fields)
- the plants that are recommended to grow before wheat cultivation, provided they are harvested by 10-15 September, are soybean, sugar beet and sunflower; it is advisable not to grow wheat on a former corner field, if the corn was infested with Fusarium)
- it is not recommended to grow wheat after late-harvest crops that deplete the soil of water and nutrients, such as barley, sorghum, wheat after wheat monoculture, pasture grass etc.
- How to choose the variety/hybrid
When choosing the variety/hybrid the following criteria are considered
- cultivation zone
- biological value
- health condition
- purity (over 98%)
- germination capacity (over 90%)
- moisture content (below 14%)
- fungicide treatment applied
- Seed treatment – more and more farmers are producing their own seeds. Seeds are treated by means of mortar mixers or other simple means that are causing treatment inconsistency and infestation risk.
- Planting period:
- a) IN THEORY – from 15 September to 1 October in hilly areas and between 1 to 10 October in favorable areas
- b) IN PRACTICE – when the weather permits it and always allowing some 40 to 50 days before the coming of winter, so that the wheat vegetation progresses normally before the winter sets in (2-3 moderately developed tillers (shoots/sprouts) and 4-5 leaves).
- The planting (sowing/seeding) rate by variety: Romanian varieties: 220-280 kg-ha è450-600b.gm2 depending on weather and technological conditions; foreign varieties: 160-200 kg / ha è350-450b.g
- Soil preparation works:
- Scarification, if necessary, especially on soils with draining and compaction problems.
- Plowing immediately after harvesting the precursor plant, or large disc plowing, where the soil allows it
- Disc harrowing
- Preparation of the germinating bed by means of a disc or a combiner + incorporation of NPK-based fertilizers
- Soil rolling over, if necessary
- Maintenance works:
- Fertilization: In autumn, fertilization is made using NP or NPK products that should preferably contain secondary macroelements as well as microelements. In spring, nitrogenous products are used as fertilizers (preferably two to three passes).
- Herbicides are applied in autumn and in spring. In autumn, herbicides should be applied only if necessary and in particular in case of second (spontaneous) growth.
- Fungicide application: if the fall is long and rainy, we apply the first fungicide, to avoid the occurrence of diseases in the autumn season; otherwise, we apply fungicides once, twice or even three times in spring; the third fungicide should be applied only if there are excessive rainfalls during the filling period, so as to maintain the flag-leaf as green as possible for as long as possible.
- Insecticide application: the insecticide is chosen depending on the type of pests and the degree of infestation (PED – economic threshold); systemic or contact insecticides may be used.
Demand for Macro / Microelements
CICh position regarding wheat growing – IN AUTUMN:
- SUPER START 10.40.0– fine-grained crop starter fertilizers ~ 25- 30 KG/HA
- CEREALFOS or NP 8.30 0 NGOOO+AMESAL + ME– high P deficiency ~ 180 – 200 KG/HA
- NP 5.24.0 NGOOO + AMESAL + ME– low to medium P deficiency, ~ 18- -200 KG/HA
- NPK: 4.20.10. + NGOOO+ AMESAL + ME– where necessary and K-based fertilizer upon planting, ~ 180 – 200 G/HA\
YIELD EVALUATION CRITERIA:
- EARS / NUMBER OF PLANTS (with focus on tillering)
- NUMBER OF GRAINS PER EAR ( with focus on the second node and on florescence)
- KG/MMB (with focus on ripening)